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Commentary for 1 Samuel 22 . He became paranoid and whiny, and he led through guilt and accusation. . We fully respect if you want to refuse cookies but to avoid asking you again and again kindly allow us to store a cookie for that. i. Saul continued in his reckless paranoia. Now the prophet Gad said to David: David enjoyed support and aid from the prophets. b. I have caused the death of all the persons of your father’s house: David meant this in two ways. e. My son has stirred up my servant against me: Jonathan never did any such thing but Saul could not accept the truth that David and Jonathan were in the right and he was in the wrong. These men were in debt. 1 Samuel 22:17-19 . Click to enable/disable Google Analytics tracking. In the greater way, it was David’s mere presence with Ahimelech that made him guilty before Saul and there really wasn’t anything David or anyone could do about that. David at Adullam, Many resort to him. A Contemplation of David. An unprincipled leader might make these 400 men into a gang of rebels or cutthroats, but David did not allow this to become a rebel army against King Saul. God doesn’t work through mobs. (9-10) Doeg reports on Ahimelech and David to King Saul. “You shall surely die, Ahimelech, you and your father’s house”: Any man in the place of sin and rebellion Saul was in can’t stand to see an innocent, guileless man like Ahimelech disagree with him. with David, and because they knew when he fled and did not tell it to me.” But the servants of the king would not lift their hands to strike the priests of the LORD. He couldn’t go to his house, he couldn’t go to the palace, he couldn’t go to Samuel, he couldn’t go to Jonathan, he couldn’t go to the house of the LORD, and he couldn’t go to the ungodly. c. Will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards: Saul appealed to the truly worst in these men, asking them if a man from Judah will favor the tribe of Benjamin with riches and promotions. . These were not the men David would choose for himself, but they were the ones God called to him. 2 j And everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was bitter in soul, 1 gathered to him. This probably wasn’t what David really wanted to hear but he obeyed anyway. 1 and 2 Samuel form one book in the ancient Hebrew manuscripts. 1 Samuel 2. He went to … Click to enable/disable _gid - Google Analytics Cookie. I have caused, of all the persons of your father’s house. Stay with me; do not fear. David's Kindred and Others Resort to Him at Adullam. In 1 Samuel 15:22 Samuel said that it is better to obey God than to *sacrifice to him. None of you is sorry for me (1 Samuel 22:8). Here I am, my lord: Ahimelech answered Saul with the honesty of a man with a clear conscience. He also knew how to divert Saul’s anger and suspicion from his own staff to the priests. Surely, they are working together against you Saul, and Ahimelech probably knows exactly where David is and where he is going.”. You can also change some of your preferences. . 22. i. Psalm 57 shows David with a humble heart: Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me! David therefore departed from there and escaped to the cave of Adullam. But they chose rather to disobey the king than to offend God by imbruing their hands in the blood of his ministering servants. Also Nob, the city of the priests, he struck with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and nursing infants, oxen and donkeys and sheep—with the edge of the sword. 1 Samuel 22:1-8 . And everyone who was in distress, everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented gathered to him. With a spear in his hand, and all his servants standing about him: When Saul had a spear in his hand, it usually meant he was going to try to hurt someone. i. Doeg was more than an ambitious man looking to promote himself. We use cookies to let us know when you visit our websites, how you interact with us, to enrich your user experience, and to customize your relationship with our website. We don’t know who wrote the books; certainly, Samuel was a major contributor, but much of the book takes place after his death in 1 Samuel 25. Now, all he can do is minister to the need in front of him – Abiathar, the surviving priest. These men were in distress. Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary 1 Samuel 2:22. c. The cave of Adullam: The title of Psalm 142 reads: A Contemplation of David. It was right to appear publicly among the people of his own tribe, as one conscious of innocence and trusting in God; and it was expedient that, on the death of Saul, his friends might be encouraged to support his interest. “His anger was bent against the Lord himself, for taking away his kingdom, and giving it to another: and because he could not come at the Lord, therefore he wreaketh his rage upon his priests.” (Trapp), ii. 1 Samuel 22:20 - But one son of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped and fled after David. Due to security reasons we are not able to show or modify cookies from other domains. They inquired of the Lord — Either by Urim and Thummim, which was the usual way of inquiry; or by Samuel, who by his prayer procured an answer. escaped to the cave Adullam--supposed to be that now called Deir-Dubban, a number of pits or underground vaults, some nearly square, and all about fifteen or twenty feet deep, with perpendicular sides, in the soft limestone or chalky rocks. A foreigner alone ( Psalms 52:1-3 ) could be found willing to be the executioner of this bloody and sacrilegious sentence. “Do you see the truth of which this Old Testament story is so graphic a picture? But you can’t hide 400 men. forest of Hareth--southwest of Jerusalem. So, Psalm 142 described David’s discouraged heart: I cry out to the LORD with my voice; with my voice to the LORD I make my supplication. Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary 1 Samuel 22:17. . ii. escaped--This was Abiathar, who repaired to David in the forest of Hareth, rescuing, with his own life, the high priest's vestments ( 1 Samuel 23:6 1 Samuel 23:9 ). a. Doeg the Edomite: This man was last seen in 1 Samuel 21:7 in Nob, at the tabernacle at the same time David came there. David had to trust and obey when he didn’t know what God would do. 1 Samuel chapter 22 summary starts out with David leaving the presence of the king of Gath and dwells in a cave, from whence he sent word to his family where he was and they came to visit and see him. 1 Samuel 22:1. These were not the men David would choose for himself, but they were the ones God called to him. (Psalm 57:9, 5, 11). The Hebrew word for discontented means bitter of soul. And the king said to Doeg, “You turn and kill the priests!” So Doeg the Edomite turned and struck the priests, and killed on that day eighty-five men who wore a linen ephod. So, he commanded him to be murdered. Each principle is important. He said to the king of Moab, “Please let my father and mother come here with you”: David took his parents to Moab because his great-grandmother Ruth was a Moabite (Ruth 4:18-22, 1:4). 1 Samuel 22:1-8.DAVID'S KINDRED AND OTHERS RESORT TO HIM AT ADULLAM. And when his brothers and all his father’s house heard, , they went down there to him. 22 David departed from there and escaped to h the cave of i Adullam. his brethren and all his father's house . That is why he acted. Psalm 57 shows David with a prayerful heart: I will cry out to God Most High, to God who performs all things for me. : God called an unlikely and unique group to David in the Adullam cave. This was a solid beginning to a rebel army if David wanted it. You love all devouring words, you deceitful tongue. is important. discontented gathered to him. Psalm 57 describes David as the LORD strengthened him in the cave and prepared him for what was next. Just as in David’s day, there is a King in exile who is gathering around Him a company of people who are in distress, in debt, and discontented. For the new initiative with Samuel, see especially Walter Brueggemann, First and Second Samuel: Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Lousville: John Knox, 1990), 27-28. You can check these in your browser security settings. . A judge was more than a person who presided over a courtroom. Login or Create an Account. David received God’s word. Psalm 57 shows David with a realistic heart: My soul is among lions… they have prepared a net for my steps. Senseless Census - 2 Samuel 24:1-25. All rights reserved. God doesn’t work through mobs. Then David had a brief but intense period of backsliding, a dramatic turn to the LORD and deliverance from a life-threatening situation. All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. So the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father’s house, the priests who, in Nob. But he wasn’t reluctant to murder the priests of the LORD in cold blood. So Saul constructed elaborate conspiracies against him. Cambridge: U. P., 1977. We will focus our attention on verses 22-23 of our text, in which Samuel confronts Saul for having disobeyed God. We often think we have to get out of the cave until we can have the heart David had in Psalm 57. a. David therefore departed from there: David had been through a lot. David, therefore, had less anxiety in seeking an asylum within the dominions of this prince than those of Achish, because the Moabites had no grounds for entertaining vindictive feelings against him, and their enmity, to Saul rendered them the more willing to receive so illustrious a refugee from his court. They knew the bitterness of life, and they were not satisfied with their lives or with King Saul. For he who seeks my life seeks your life, but with me you shall be safe.”, a. I knew that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul: David showed how he felt about this in Psalm 52, which says in its title A Contemplation of David when Doeg the Edomite went and told Saul, and said to him, “David has gone to the house of Ahimelech.”, i. This is a precious gift from God because previously all David had was trouble and persecution from his father and his brothers (1 Samuel 16:11 and 1 Samuel 17:28). David made them into the kind of men described in 1 Chronicles 12:8: Mighty men of valor, men trained for battle, who could handle the shield and spear, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as gazelles on the mountains. (16-19) Saul commands the execution of the priests and their families, and Doeg the Edomite carries it out. i. Ahimelech was so unaware of the hatred Saul has for David that he praised David before the jealous king: “And who among all your servants is as faithful as David.” This is because David told Ahimelech that he was on Saul’s bidding when he was really running for his life (1 Samuel 21:2). And Saul said, “Hear now, son of Ahitub!” And he answered, “Here I am, my lord.” Then Saul said to him, “Why have you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse, in that you have given him bread and a sword, and have inquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, as it is this day?” So Ahimelech answered the king and said, “And who among all your servants is as faithful as David, who is the king’s son-in-law, who goes at your bidding, and is honorable in your house? The Son of David is ready to receive distressed souls, who will be commanded by him. He works through called men and women, but He also calls others to stand with and support those men and women. I pour out my complaint before Him; I declare before Him my trouble. on StudyLight.org Instead of telling Ahimelech the truth, David lied to him. “This is one of the worst acts in the life of Saul; his malice was implacable, and his wrath was cruel, and there is no motive of justice or policy by which such a barbarous act can be justified.” (Clarke) “A bloody sentence, harshly pronounced and as rashly executed, without any pause or deliberation, without any remorse or regret. He had the high of immediate fame, a recent marriage, dangers from the Philistines, repeated attempts on his life, and a heartbreaking farewell from everyday life to live as a fugitive for who knows how long. Psalm 57 shows a heart of trusting praise to the LORD: I will praise You, O LORD, among the peoples; I will sing to You among the nations… Be exalted, O God, above the heavens; let Your glory be above all the earth. He knew he was called and anointed to be the next king of Israel, but he had no idea how God would get him there. He accused Ahimelech and David of conspiracy against him (you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse). So David said to Abiathar, “I knew that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul. . When Israel needed deliverance from Egypt, God didn’t call a committee. iii. He is training and preparing them for the day when He shall come to reign.” (Redpath). Because these cookies are strictly necessary to deliver the website, refuseing them will have impact how our site functions. “Look at all the help Ahimelech gave David. Let not the king impute anything to his servant, to any in the house of my father. But we can have it now, no matter what our circumstances. 1 Samuel 22:16. I will praise You forever, because You have done it; and in the presence of Your saints I will wait on Your name, for it is good. Also Nob, the city of the priests, he struck with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and nursing infants, oxen and donkeys and sheep—with the edge of the sword. Click to enable/disable essential site cookies. b. Saul thought of himself as the victim, that David and Ahimelech were out to get him. “Hereby also God would exercise David’s faith, and wisdom, and courage; and so prepare him for the kingdom, and uphold and increase his reputation among the people.” (Poole), When Saul heard that David and the men who were with him had been discovered—now Saul was staying in Gibeah under a tamarisk tree in Ramah, with his spear in his hand, and all his servants standing about him—then Saul said to his servants who stood about him, “Hear now, you Benjamites! You love evil more than good, lying rather than speaking righteousness. A verse by verse commentary on 1 Samuel 22 dealing with David in the cave of Adullam. d. The cave of Adullam: The title of Psalm 57 reads A Michtam of David when he fled from Saul into the cave. . But at the very least, he kept Ahimelech from dying with greater honor. David had to learn to trust God. When his brothers and his father’s household heard about it, they went down to him there. But just as much as God called David, God called these four hundred to come beside David. 7, 8. The facts looked against him, and the whole priesthood along with him were declared abettors of conspiracy [ 1 Samuel 22:16 1 Samuel 22:17 ]. . For he who seeks my life seeks your life, but with me you, I knew that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul, : David showed how he felt about this in Psalm 52, which says in its title, A Contemplation of David when Doeg the Edomite went and told Saul, and said to him, “David has gone to the house of Ahimelech.”. CHAPTER 22. Biblical Commentary. b. (6-8) Feeling sorry for himself, Saul accuses his aides of treason. Now the prophet Gad said to David, “Do not stay in the stronghold; depart, and go to the land of Judah.” So David departed and went into the forest of Hereth. David couldn’t help but consider how far he had come from a great victory to running around like a criminal, hiding in a cave. As a result of his fear, he made a number of mistakes. David . They hadn’t seen a lot of success in the past, and were stung from their past failures. But this will always prompt you to accept/refuse cookies when revisiting our site. Now one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped and fled after David. Most archaeologists believe that the Cave of Adullam was not too far from the place where David defeated Goliath, in the hills of Judah. New American Standard Version. 2 All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. : This man was last seen in 1 Samuel 21:7 in Nob, at the tabernacle at the same time David came there. When my spirit was overwhelmed within me, then You knew my path. When David came back into Judah, Saul’s network of informants quickly discovered them. 1 Samuel 22 – David at the Adullam Cave, Saul Murders the Priests A. David at Adullam cave. : When Saul had a spear in his hand, it usually meant he was going to try to hurt someone. When David came back into Judah, Saul’s network of informants quickly discovered them. These cookies are strictly necessary to provide you with services available through our website and to use some of its features. Your tongue devises destruction, like a sharp razor, working deceitfully. 1 Samuel 1. : David took his parents to Moab because his great-grandmother Ruth was a Moabite (Ruth 4:18-22, 1:4). They had problems of their own, yet God called them to David at the Adullam cave. Let not the king impute anything to his servant, or to any in the house of my father. And he inquired of the LORD for him, gave him provisions, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.”. 22:1-5 See what weak instruments God sometimes uses, to bring about his own purposes. 4. They knew the bitterness of life, and they were not satisfied with their lives or with King Saul. v. The LORD brought David into this place while He was still in the. came to him. David, being driven from Achish, returns into the land of Israel to be hunted by Saul. These men were discontented. i. We know from both 1 Samuel and the Psalms that David turned his heart back to the LORD and asked forgiveness after his lies to Ahimelech. i. i. A Michtam of David when he fled from Saul into the cave. Last Words Look Forward - 2 Samuel 23:1-7. Doeg . See the insightful remarks by Stephen B. Chapman, 1 Samuel as Christian Scripture: A Theological Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2016), 87-89, to which I am indebted. This he probably did from a sense of his own unworthiness. Also, notice how Saul referred to David: “, .” He didn’t say, “The Man Who Killed Goliath,” or “The Man Who Killed 200 Philistines,” or “The Man Anointed by God.” Saul knew that David came from a family of simple farmers, so he called him by the humblest name he could think of –, All of you have conspired against me… there is not one of you who is sorry for me. God wanted to be David’s refuge in this discouraging time. And Saul said, “Hear now, son of Ahitub!” And he answered, “Here I am, my lord.” Then Saul said to him, “Why have you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse, in that you have given him bread and a sword, and have inquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, as it is this day?” So Ahimelech answered the king and said, “And who among all your servants.

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