As a consequence of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the resulting Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, Derbent and wider Dagestan were forcedly and irrevocably ceded by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire. Think Again, Moscow Says", "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus", "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent", Правительство РД — Дербент — Муниципальные районы и городские округа, "Saving Another Dying Jewish Language Before It's Too Late", "После покушения на раввина евреи Дагестана живут в страхе", Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of.  In 2016, the Jewish population was down to 1,345.. They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits.  Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region.  Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks.  Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. In 2002, there were 2,000 Jews with an active synagogue and community center. Russia. The current fortification and walls were built by the Persian Sassanian Empire as a defensive structure against hostile nomadic people in the north, and continuously repaired or improved by later Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms until the early course of the 19th century, as long as its military function lasted. The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls.  The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela mentions Jews living in Derbent in the 12th century, and Christian traveler Wilhelm of Rubruquis writes about a Jewish community in the 13th century. The abode of the Parthians was there.  A similar name, also meaning "Iron Gate", was used by Turkic peoples, in the form of "Demirkapi".. A mosque. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. The fortification complex was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003. The city is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. ... Derbent. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. In the 1st century BCE, Derbent became incorporated in the kingdom of Caucasian Albania, probably as its northernmost possession. With a history going back by five thousand years, Derbent is said to be Russia’s oldest city. Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fortifications_of_Derbent&oldid=989635833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. Derbent is the southern-most city in Russia, and over 1,500km south of Moscow. 'The Gate') or as "Bāb al-Hadid" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد, lit. Over the centuries the city changed hands often.  The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627.  According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”, relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages. At the beginning of our era, part of the present Dagestan was in Caucasian … Indeed, here the Caucasus Mountains most closely approach the Caspian Sea, forming a narrow “neck”, the movement through which is easy to control.  This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population.. Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. In the middle of the 20th century, Jews constituted about a third of the population of Derbent. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. It is often identified with the Gates of Alexander, a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus. The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues, making it fall under Persian rule again. The bed was comfy. Media in category "Derbent wall" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. Том 1", http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. Canals of St Petersburg, Russia As visitors gaze upon the canals that criss-cross through the village of St Petersburg, many are unaware that they are witnessing paths carved in the name of trade and westernization. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south.  As a municipal division, the City of Derbent is incorporated as Derbent Urban Okrug. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. Крепость Нарын-кала. The fortress was built under direction of the Sassanid emperor Khosrow (Chosroes) I.. AC worked well. The rulers of Shirvan, called the Shirvanshahs, had attempted, and on numerous times, succeeded, to conquer Derbend since the 18th Shirvanshah king, Afridun I, was appointed as the governor of the city. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings, Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Surroundings, Traditional Persian residential architecture, Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Derbent&oldid=989635831, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with Armenian-language sources (hy), Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Lezgian-language text, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. I stayed at the Hotel Elit for one night in July 2015. After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. Peter I conquered Derbent during the Persian campaign, but later it went to Persia again, and finally joined the Russian Empire only in 1813. A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC; the site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. It is the center of Russian brandy production. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. There was also a second Armenian church, and two Armenian schools which served the Armenian community, which numbered about 3,000 in the census of 1913. 564. Furthermore, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits of his state. This is a must-visit for understanding the Дербент. Until the Russians conquered Derbent in the 1800s, the wall remained a crucial point in the city's military security. Local authorities claim they’d warned Russia’s Culture Ministry about the condition of the Orta-Kapi gate in Derbent, the country’s second-oldest city. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г.  The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. To the north of the town is the monument of the Kirk-lar, or forty heroes, who fell defending Dagestan against the Arabs in 728. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. , The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):. The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrasa.  As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia It is clear that the most important thing in Derbent is the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe.  Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. The room is large with equipped with new furniture. Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). The first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II (438–457 AD).. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. Derbent wall (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city.  Archaeological evidence points to the establishment of a fortified settlement on the Derbent hill as early as the late 8th century BCE, probably under the impact of Scythian raids. Out of the window next to the reception desk (3rd floor) you have a great view of the castle. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». As Shah Ismail incorporated all the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend. The 21st Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband" (Persian: دربند, lit. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". History of Derbent and the millennia old historical and cultural relations it has with Iran.