CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) You can do a 'dry' scrubbing reaction between powdered calcium carbonate and sulfur dioxide gas to form calcium sulfite and displace carbon dioxide gas. : Calcium oxide and Flue-gas desulfurization … You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription. About 0% of these are Oxide. Flue Gas Desulphurization at Low Temperatures Using Coal Fly Ash/Ca-Based Sorbent: Determination of Rate Limiting Step. Our quicklime is used in flue gas desulfurization, water and waste water treatment, steel, paper, chemical and environmental applications. 27/04/2019 CaCO 3 (s) + SO 2 (g) → CaSO 3 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2CaSO 3 (s) + O 2 (g) → 2CaSO 4 (s) Alternatively, the acidic sulfur dioxide is allowed to react with basic calcium oxide to form calcium sulfite, which is then oxidised to calcium sulfate. A novel resource utilization of the calcium-based semi-dry flue gas desulfurization ash is investigated. Reaction and transport effects in the heterogeneous systems for lean gas purification. Absorption tests were conducted using a differential packed-bed reactor in an electrically heated furnace. This paper discusses the development of such a highly reactive calcium-base absorbent. An experimental study has been performed of the reactions occurring when the reactive particles of calcium oxide are exposed to sulfur dioxide bearing flue gas. A process for the reduction of sulfur oxides from flue gases is provided in which ammonia is added to the flue gas to precipitate out (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . MgO (s) + SO 2 (g) → MgSO 3 Oxygen injected at the base of the scrubber further oxidizes the MgSO 3 to magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 Working off-campus? Chemical Equation: CaO (s) + SO 2 (g) → CaSO 3 (s) 2CaSO 3 (s) + O 2 (g) → 2CaSO 4 (s) However, sulfur dioxide (SO2) collection efficiency is low, energy and process costs are high, and the process still involves handling a slurry of lime. The absorbents were examined and compared for its micro-structural properties. [Calcium oxide injection into boiler] (in German) Full Record; Other Related Research; Authors: Goldschmidt, K Publication Date: Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1968 EPA-CICA Fact Sheet Flue Gas Desulfurization1 Name of Technology: Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) - Wet, ... scrubbing process typically uses a calcium or sodium based alkaline reagent. Adsorption on CaO(100) phenomenon occurs. NO X and SO 2 emission from power plants during the coal burning process has been one of the major problems that result in adverse effect on the environment and human health. Magnesium Oxide For Flue Gas Desulfurization Magnesium Oxide for Flue Gas Desulfurization The powder is calcined in tunnel kilns using the magnesite selected from floation as raw material.It possesses high activity and desulfurizes gas with high efficiency. Steam Hydration of Calcium Oxide for Solid Sorbent Based CO 2). ----- Flue gas/off-gas Cleaned flue gas Absorption liquor Sulfur products Other systems Off-site disposal Settling pond Waste solids Figure 4. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Symposia Papers & STPs. CaO + SO 2 CaSO 3 Flue gas desulfurization is a chemical process to remove sulfur oxides from the flue gas at coal-burning powerplants. This oxidation implies the addition of dissolved oxygen to an S (IV) species to produce S (VI). This helps to ensure that plants comply with both local and international environmental legislation for their emissions. Cao 90%Min Calcium Oxide Flue Gas Desulfurization of Quicklime. Dry Scrubbing Technologies for Flue Gas Desulfurization. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2000 , 39 (5) , 1390-1396. Absorption tests were conducted using a differential packed-bed reactor in an electrically heated furnace. Abstract. Opportunity for students to research the common products used in the home that are acidic/alkaline in nature and apply this knowledge to some everyday examples of neutralisation reactions- indigestion tablets, insect bites or stings. The process uses a base, normally calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2), to convert the SO 2 into calcium sulfite: Ca(OH) 2 + SO 2 → Ca SO 3 + CO 2 Cao 90%Min Calcium Oxide Flue Gas Desulfurization of Quicklime picture from Tian Jin Shi Jin Hong Wei Bang Chemical Limited Company view photo of Calcium Oxide, Cao, Calcium Oxide 90%.Contact China Suppliers for More Products and Price. Kinetic Studies on the Medium Temperature Ca(OH)2 Sorbent Injection FGD Process. This is followed by a fast reaction of CaSO 3 oxidation: (3) 4 CaSO 3 → 3 CaSO 4 + CaS, which is followed by the oxidation of calcium sulfide to calcium sulfate [9], [10], [11]. Then calcium oxide desulfurization experiments with the titanium dioxide catalyst were carried out and it was found that when the calcination temperature is 500 oC, the maximum desulfurization efficiency in the sample is achieved. New!! Flue gas desulfurization technology is mainly used absorbent or adsorbent to various alkaline trapping of sulfur dioxide in flue gas and converted into a more stable and easy to mechanicalseparation ofsulfur compounds orsulfur,so asto achieve the purpose of desulfurization. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Most FGD systems employ two stages: one for fly ashremoval and the other for SO 2 removal. KINETICS OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF HYDRATED DOLOMITIC LIME AND SINTERING OF NASCENT CALCINE. It can be removed by passing burnt gases through a flue contining calcium oxide. H 2 O HSO 3 − SO 3 2 − + 1 / 2 O 2 → Catalyst S VI SO 4 2 − + H +. Initial reaction rates were determined, the reaction products were analyzed, and overall conversion calculated. Another sample became fully rutile at 900 oC and the desulfurization efficiency began to improve. Panera Bread Calories, Glytone Mild Gel Cleanser Walmart, Bird Of Paradise Brown Spots, Head To Toe Assessment Pdf, Kruskal-wallis Test Spss, Where Is Majestic Hills, Subject 2 Contract Template, Chamomile In Arabic, Nestlé Toll House Recipes, " />

However, these systems experienced severe maintenance problems and low removal efficiency. DOI: 10.1021/ie990699l. This highly reactive calcium oxide reacts in the dry state with sulfur dioxide and oxygen in the flue gas at high temperatures, in close to stoichiometric amounts, to yield a dry calcium sulfate product. and CO This is a basic oxide which reacts with the sulfur dioxide forming calcium sulfite, an ionic solid which is easily removed as a white powder. Kaplan, N., "Introduction to Double Alkali Flue Gas Desulfurization Technology," EPA Flue Gas Desulfurization Symposium, New Orleans, March, 1976. 2 OSTI.GOV Journal Article: Reactions between calcium oxide and flue gas containing sulfur dioxide at lower temperatures. Calcium oxide (CaO - quicklime) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 - hydrated lime), and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 - limestone or chalk) can each be used to neutralise the acidic gases and remove sulfur dioxide from flue gases. Solid calcium hydroxide is known as slaked lime or hydrated lime, and solutions and suspensions in water as milk of lime. A simulated flue gas mixture containing 0.3% to 0.4% SO2 was reacted with the calcium oxide over a range of temperatures and reaction times. This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription. On the trapping of SOx on CaO–Al2O3-based novel high capacity sorbents. Calcium Hydroxide for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Calcium Hydroxide Civil Engineering, Calcium Hydroxide Chemical Additive manufacturer / supplier in China, offering 90% High Purity Calcium Hydroxide/Hydrated Lime for Agricultural Soil Improvement, Wholesale Custom … Herein, a new pore-type surface dielectric barrier discharge (PSDBD) reactor was first used for the oxidation of calcium sulfite in flue gas desulfurization. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2000, 39 (5) , 1390-1396. Calcium Oxide, Cao, Calcium Oxide 90% manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Cao 90%Min Calcium Oxide Flue Gas Desulfurization of Quicklime, Caustic Soda Pearls 99%, High Quality Caustic Soda Flakes / Pearls Cheap Price in China and so on. [Calcium oxide injection into boiler] Flue gas desulfurization experiments. Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization with Highly Reactive Calcium Oxide VS Bakhshi, MF LaMarre, BE Powell. Flue Gas Desulfurisation - I Can Do Chemistry. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, © 2020 American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing, Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Parallel to dissolution and neutralization, S (IV) is oxidized by residual oxygen, absorbed from flue gas. Chemical Equation: CaCO 3 (s) + SO 2 (g) → CaSO 3 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2CaSO 3 (s) + O 2 (g) → 2CaSO 4 (s) Alternatively, the acidic sulfur dioxide is allowed to react with basic calcium oxide to form calcium sulfite, which is then oxidised to calcium sulfate. The process is called flue gas desulfurization (FGD). Calcium Oxide, Cao, Calcium Oxide 90% manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Cao 90%Min Calcium Oxide Flue Gas Desulfurization of Quicklime, Caustic Soda Pearls 99%, High Quality Caustic Soda Flakes / Pearls Cheap Price in China and so on. This … Preparation of Active Absorbent for Dry-Type Flue Gas Desulfurization from Calcium Oxide, Coal Fly Ash, and Gypsum. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Learn about our remote access options, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Czech Academy of Sciences, 165 02 Prague 6‐Suchdol, Czech Republic. 1:38. Kinetics of flue gas desulphurization at low temperatures: fly ash/calcium (31) sorbent behaviour. In addition, students Produce Light. Comprehensive sulfation model verified for T–T sorbent clusters during flue gas desulfurization at moderate temperatures. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. OSTI.GOV Journal Article: Flue gas desulfurization experiments. Solid spray or calcium oxide pulp can be used to remove sulfur dioxide from the exhaust flow in a process called flue gas desulfurization. As compared to a commercial absorbent prepared from Ca(OH)2, gypsum (CaSO4) and coal fly ash, an absorbent prepared by use of CaO in place of Ca(OH)2, exhibited a higher activity for dry-type flue gas desulfurization . The result is a chemical lime that will provide exceptional performance for your acid neutralization, flue-gas desulfurization, sludge stabilization or other industrial alkali applications. Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation Jump to Main Navigation This highly reactive calcium oxide reacts in the dry state with sulfur dioxide and oxygen in the flue gas at high temperatures, in close to stoichiometric amounts, to yield a dry calcium sulfate product. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Dry-Type Flue Gas Desulfurization from Calcium Oxide, Coal Fly Ash, and Gypsum. Shrimp Culture Industry. Quigley, C.P., and J.A. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process designed to remove sulfur dioxide (SO 2) from the exhaust gasses of coal burning power plants.. The expense of additional process equipment and environmental concerns over the disposal of soluble sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate waste have precluded their use. Lime/Limestone FGD Process: (a) Absorption, (b) Solids Precipitation, and (c) Concentration and Disposal Mist Elimination and Stack Gas Reheat. A relatively simple correlation based on the amassed data has been proposed. The proposed rate law equation makes it possible to predict in a straightforward manner the rate of sorption which would be required to design the performance of a desulfurization unit. Flue Gas Desulfurization. New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) units are being installed at utilities in many parts of the U.S. and a large percentage of the new scrubbers are of the wet limestone type. SO2 reaction with Ca(OH)2 at medium temperatures (300–425°C). A relatively simple correlation based on the amassed data has been proposed. Pore blockage and incomplete conversion are the main problems of sorbents such as CaO and MgO. USE OF CALCIUM SULFITE ‐‐ CONTAINING FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) BY ‐‐ PRODUCT TO INHIBIT ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM COAL REFUSE Yue‐li Hao Warren A. Dick School of Natural Resources The Ohio State University 1680 Madison Avenue Wooster, OH, 44691 Phone: 330‐263‐3877 Fax: 330‐263‐3658 E‐mail: dick.5@osu.edu. Lime, Quicklime, Calcium Oxide, Burnt Lime, HiCal Lime, Caustic Lime, Calcium Lime. Capture: Effects of Sintering and Fluidized Bed Reactor Behavior Basin Electric 53,086 views. Active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal fly ash, calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4 ) by hydro-thermal process; steam and water hydration. In wet scrubbing systems, the flue gas normally passes first through a fly ash removal device, either an electrostatic precipitator or a baghouse, and then into the SO 2-absorber. Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.It is a white, caustic, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature. Calcium Hydroxide for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Calcium Hydroxide Civil Engineering, Calcium Hydroxide Chemical Additive manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Calcium Hydroxide (Hydrated Lime/ Slaked Lime) for Chemical Raw Materials, Good Quality Natural Milk Salts SPA Body Cleaning Beauty Care Adult Bath Salt for Water SPA, Natural Body and Skin Care Bath Salt and so on. As compared to a commercial absorbent prepared from Ca(OH)2, gypsum (CaSO4) and coal fly ash, an absorbent prepared by use of CaO in place of Ca(OH)2, exhibited a higher activity for dry-type flue gas desulfurization . Carbon materials as catalyst supports for SO2 oxidation: catalytic activity of CuO–AC. http://www.dakotagas.com http://www.basinelectric.com 11. Initial reaction between CaO and SO 2 under carbonating and non-carbonating conditions. There is a considerable range of practical work that can be carried out. As the flue gas comes in contact with the slurry of calcium salts, sulfur dioxide (SO 2) reacts with the calcium to form hydrous calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 2H 2 O, gypsum). I only came across calcium oxide (lime) and calcium carbonate (limestone) in the AQA endorsed textbook, so I'm not sure about the calcium … . 2 Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science. Using a differential, fixed‐bed reactor, kinetic measurements have been made in the temperature range of 170 and 580°C. Reactions between calcium oxide and flue gas containing sulfur dioxide at lower temperatures. This correlation allows the estimation of the reaction rate as a function of temperature, conversion of the solids and concentration of sulfur dioxide in the gas phase. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Preparation of active absorbent for dry-type flue gas desulfurization from calcium oxide, coal fly ash, and gypsum All Products. Full Record; Other Related Research; In the industry of shrimp or tiger shrimp culture, lime is popularly used as an alkaline substance to anticipate the decline in pH of pond water due to rain. First at the surface of CaO: (2) CaO + SO 2 → CaSO 3. ASTM International; DOI: 10.1520/stp23149s The SO 2 is absorbed in the scrubber slurry and forms insoluble magnesium sulfite (MgSO 3) as in the equation below. For Flue gas desulfurization in Chem1, do i need to know about calcium oxide only or calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide and gypsum? How to Build a Block Wall Lay the Blocks - Duration: 40:09. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is one of the common sorbents to capture sulfur dioxide in FGD. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is one of the common sorbents to capture sulfur dioxide in FGD. However, in dry injection or spray drying operations, the SO … Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies are applied to minimize SO2 emission to the atmosphere and prevention of acid rains. Granted, Calcium Hydroxide is not the initial principle reagant for that, CaO is, but by the time the flue gas comes in contact with the sorbent, it is Calcium Hydroxide.Woahmid 00:09, 29 February 2012 (UTC) Lutefisk Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes (e.g trash incineration). 2 Using a differential, fixed‐bed reactor, kinetic measurements have been made in the temperature range of 170 and 580°C. Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. Flow diagram of the flue-gas-desulfurization process based on lime ( CaO ) or limestone ( CaCO 3 ), which are the sorbents used by 90 percent of FGD systems in the United States. American Institute of Chemical Engineers 120 Wall St., 23rd floor New York, NY 10005 1-800-AIChemE (1-800-242-4363) (203) 702-7660 www.aiche.org. the acidification of lakes and rivers leading to the death of aquatic life. When raw lime is heated to 2400 ° C (4,350 ° F), this lime emits intense light. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Decomposition of Potassium Hydrogen Carbonate: Thermochemistry, Kinetics, and Textural Changes in Solids. Heat from the gas dries the droplets and yields a dry product containing calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. Using a differential, fixed‐bed reactor, kinetic measurements have been made in the temperature range of 170 and 580°C. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies are applied to minimize SO2 emission to the atmosphere and prevention of acid rains. Dry absorbents for SO2 have been studied and, up to the present time, only sodium-based materials have been found to be sufficiently reactive. Gi-Hune Jung,, Hotae Kim, and, Sun-Geon Kim. After fly ash removal, the flue gas enters the scrubber (Figure 1) where it comes in contact with the MgO slurry. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. In the chemical industry, large quantities of limestone are heated to ca 1500 K to form calcium oxide, known as quicklime: Water can be added to lime to form calcium hydroxide. Chemical or power production: Solid sprays or slurries of calcium oxide can be used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust streams in a process called flue-gas desulfurization Pore blockage and incomplete conversion are the main problems of sorbents such as CaO and MgO. calcium oxide, calcium sulfate, flue gas desulfurization, gas suspension calcination, surface area, pore size distribution, mercury porosimetry, Bakhshi, VS Senior research staff member, and research associates, USG Corporation Research Center, Libertyville, IL, LaMarre, MF Senior research staff member, and research associates, USG Corporation Research Center, Libertyville, IL, Powell, BE Senior research staff member, and research associates, USG Corporation Research Center, Libertyville, IL. 8. 10. Burns, "Assessment of Prototype Operation and Future Expansion Study — Magnesia Scrubbing Mystic Station," EPA Flue Gas Desulfurization Symposium, Atlanta, November 4-7, 1974. The broadly used term "lime" connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminium, and iron predominate. Chemistry of the desulfurisation process: Calcium oxide (CaO) is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate, CaCO 3) CaCO 3 (s) ===> CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) You can do a 'dry' scrubbing reaction between powdered calcium carbonate and sulfur dioxide gas to form calcium sulfite and displace carbon dioxide gas. : Calcium oxide and Flue-gas desulfurization … You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription. About 0% of these are Oxide. Flue Gas Desulphurization at Low Temperatures Using Coal Fly Ash/Ca-Based Sorbent: Determination of Rate Limiting Step. Our quicklime is used in flue gas desulfurization, water and waste water treatment, steel, paper, chemical and environmental applications. 27/04/2019 CaCO 3 (s) + SO 2 (g) → CaSO 3 (s) + CO 2 (g) 2CaSO 3 (s) + O 2 (g) → 2CaSO 4 (s) Alternatively, the acidic sulfur dioxide is allowed to react with basic calcium oxide to form calcium sulfite, which is then oxidised to calcium sulfate. A novel resource utilization of the calcium-based semi-dry flue gas desulfurization ash is investigated. Reaction and transport effects in the heterogeneous systems for lean gas purification. Absorption tests were conducted using a differential packed-bed reactor in an electrically heated furnace. This paper discusses the development of such a highly reactive calcium-base absorbent. An experimental study has been performed of the reactions occurring when the reactive particles of calcium oxide are exposed to sulfur dioxide bearing flue gas. A process for the reduction of sulfur oxides from flue gases is provided in which ammonia is added to the flue gas to precipitate out (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . MgO (s) + SO 2 (g) → MgSO 3 Oxygen injected at the base of the scrubber further oxidizes the MgSO 3 to magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 Working off-campus? Chemical Equation: CaO (s) + SO 2 (g) → CaSO 3 (s) 2CaSO 3 (s) + O 2 (g) → 2CaSO 4 (s) However, sulfur dioxide (SO2) collection efficiency is low, energy and process costs are high, and the process still involves handling a slurry of lime. The absorbents were examined and compared for its micro-structural properties. [Calcium oxide injection into boiler] (in German) Full Record; Other Related Research; Authors: Goldschmidt, K Publication Date: Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1968 EPA-CICA Fact Sheet Flue Gas Desulfurization1 Name of Technology: Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) - Wet, ... scrubbing process typically uses a calcium or sodium based alkaline reagent. Adsorption on CaO(100) phenomenon occurs. NO X and SO 2 emission from power plants during the coal burning process has been one of the major problems that result in adverse effect on the environment and human health. Magnesium Oxide For Flue Gas Desulfurization Magnesium Oxide for Flue Gas Desulfurization The powder is calcined in tunnel kilns using the magnesite selected from floation as raw material.It possesses high activity and desulfurizes gas with high efficiency. Steam Hydration of Calcium Oxide for Solid Sorbent Based CO 2). ----- Flue gas/off-gas Cleaned flue gas Absorption liquor Sulfur products Other systems Off-site disposal Settling pond Waste solids Figure 4. Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Symposia Papers & STPs. CaO + SO 2 CaSO 3 Flue gas desulfurization is a chemical process to remove sulfur oxides from the flue gas at coal-burning powerplants. This oxidation implies the addition of dissolved oxygen to an S (IV) species to produce S (VI). This helps to ensure that plants comply with both local and international environmental legislation for their emissions. Cao 90%Min Calcium Oxide Flue Gas Desulfurization of Quicklime. Dry Scrubbing Technologies for Flue Gas Desulfurization. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2000 , 39 (5) , 1390-1396. Absorption tests were conducted using a differential packed-bed reactor in an electrically heated furnace. Abstract. Opportunity for students to research the common products used in the home that are acidic/alkaline in nature and apply this knowledge to some everyday examples of neutralisation reactions- indigestion tablets, insect bites or stings. The process uses a base, normally calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2), to convert the SO 2 into calcium sulfite: Ca(OH) 2 + SO 2 → Ca SO 3 + CO 2 Cao 90%Min Calcium Oxide Flue Gas Desulfurization of Quicklime picture from Tian Jin Shi Jin Hong Wei Bang Chemical Limited Company view photo of Calcium Oxide, Cao, Calcium Oxide 90%.Contact China Suppliers for More Products and Price. Kinetic Studies on the Medium Temperature Ca(OH)2 Sorbent Injection FGD Process. This is followed by a fast reaction of CaSO 3 oxidation: (3) 4 CaSO 3 → 3 CaSO 4 + CaS, which is followed by the oxidation of calcium sulfide to calcium sulfate [9], [10], [11]. Then calcium oxide desulfurization experiments with the titanium dioxide catalyst were carried out and it was found that when the calcination temperature is 500 oC, the maximum desulfurization efficiency in the sample is achieved. New!! Flue gas desulfurization technology is mainly used absorbent or adsorbent to various alkaline trapping of sulfur dioxide in flue gas and converted into a more stable and easy to mechanicalseparation ofsulfur compounds orsulfur,so asto achieve the purpose of desulfurization. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Most FGD systems employ two stages: one for fly ashremoval and the other for SO 2 removal. KINETICS OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF HYDRATED DOLOMITIC LIME AND SINTERING OF NASCENT CALCINE. It can be removed by passing burnt gases through a flue contining calcium oxide. H 2 O HSO 3 − SO 3 2 − + 1 / 2 O 2 → Catalyst S VI SO 4 2 − + H +. Initial reaction rates were determined, the reaction products were analyzed, and overall conversion calculated. Another sample became fully rutile at 900 oC and the desulfurization efficiency began to improve.

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