. [5], As of 2020, the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to 117 individuals. ", novel, short story, drama, translation, screenplay, "for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal.". The Nobel prize literature winners prize includes a gold medal, a diploma, money and international recognition. ~ Alfred Nobel For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category. [6] When he received the award in 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak was forced to publicly reject the award under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union. Credit... Katherine Wolkoff. The Nobel Prize for Literature is given for a body of work, not one specific title. There have been 113 literature prizes award thus far. The Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded, according to the will of Swedish inventor and … The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually by the Swedish Academy to authors for outstanding contributions in the field of literature. The literary canon of Poland is admirable in its achievements. Several outreach organisations and activities have been developed to inspire generations and disseminate knowledge about the Nobel Prize. These include: novels, plays, poetry, essays, speeches, short stories, historical narratives, and philosophic writings. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. The Nobel Prize in Literature is an internationally recognized award for those whose works not only challenge the field, but all of humanity. Nobel's heirs, however, fought the provisions of the will and it took five years for the first awards to be presented. The Nobel Prize for Literature has had a rocky few years. With influences from their varied history, there is an emphasis on self-expression and reflection through poetry and drama. MLA style: All Nobel Prizes in Literature. The Nobel Prize in Literature is one of 5 Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel, a famous chemist, engineer, and innovator with strong interests in literature, drama, and philanthropic and diplomatic work as well. ~ Alfred Nobel Correction: Oct. 7, 2020 An inaccurate reference to the Nobel … The 2020 Nobel Prize for Literature has been awarded to 77-year-old American poet and essayist Louise Glück. Olga Tokarczuk. Wed. 23 Dec 2020. ALBERT CAMUS for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times. The Nobel Prize in Literature is one of many Nobel Prizes given in honor of Alfred Nobel. ", "2018 Nobel Prize In Literature Is A Casualty Of Sex-Abuse Scandal", "Nobel Prize in Literature awarded to Olga Tokarczuk and Peter Handke", "George Bernard Shaw | Irish dramatist and critic", "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017 – Press Release", "Number of Nobel Laureates in Literature Sorted in Languages", Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Nobel_laureates_in_Literature&oldid=994144354, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of, "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit", "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a, "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama", "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer", "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces", "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration that characterize the creations of this world-famous author", "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life", "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories", "in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations", "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art", "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West", poetry, novel, drama, short story, music, essay, philosophy, literary criticism, translation, "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature", "for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals", "for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark", "in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament", "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama", "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation", "for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty", "for her idealistically inspired writings, which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general", "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented", "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages", "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters", "for his distinguished art of narration, which takes its highest form in, "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing", "for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art", "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy", "for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle, "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces", "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature", "for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style", "for her lyric poetry, which inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world", "for his inspired writings, which while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style", "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight", "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry", "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel", "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought", "for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind", "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life", "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values", "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in, "for his vivid epic power, which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland", "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity", "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times", novel, short story, drama, philosophy, essay, "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition", "for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times", "for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry, which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time", "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country", "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception", "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture", "for his work, which rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age", novel, short story, philosophy, drama, literary criticism, screenplay, "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his, "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people", "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength", "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America", "for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind", "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation", "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature", "for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams", "for his writing, which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature", "for an epic and psychological narrative art, which has introduced a new continent into literature", "for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom", "for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos", "for his distinctive poetry, which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions", "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work", "for a creative poetic writing, which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars", "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life", "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness", "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts", "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power", "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts", "for his novels, which with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today", "for his poetry, which endowed with freshness, and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man", "who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition", "who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence", "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity", "who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind", "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability", "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity", "who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity", "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment", "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality", "who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today", "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past", "who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden", "who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality", "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history", "for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama", "for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories", "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history", "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider", "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power", "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms", "who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures", "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny", novel, drama, poetry, short story, memoirs, autobiography, "author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization", "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed", "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat", novel, short story, essay, drama, memoirs, "because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality", "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation", "for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time", "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition", "who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world", “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life”, novel, short story, poetry, essay, screenplay, "for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience. 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The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section. The Nobel Prize is an international award set that is held every year. There have been three years for which the Nobel Prize in Literature was delayed one year: the prizes for 1915,[12] 1949[13] and 2018[14][15][6] were each awarded together with that of the following year in October of the following year. The Nobel Prize in Literature is one of 5 Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel, a famous chemist, engineer, and innovator with strong interests in literature, drama, and philanthropic and diplomatic work as well. [2] The first Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded in 1901 to Sully Prudhomme of France. (shelved 17 times as nobel-prize-winners) avg rating 4.12 — 32,073 ratings — published 1943 Want to Read saving… This most prestigious prize is awarded to an author, from a country, who has 'in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction'. The Nobel Prize in Literature was created in 1901 and is awarded annually, although sometimes postponed to the following year. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. In 2018 it was postponed after sexual abuse allegations dogged the Swedish Academy and sparked a mass exodus of its members. No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. There have been seven years in which the Nobel Prize in Literature was not awarded (1914, 1918, 1935, 1940–1943). The Nobel prizes are presented annually on 10th December (the anniversary of Nobel’s death) in the Stockholm town hall, Sweden. 1956 J UAN R AMÓN J IMÉNEZ for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity. The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953 Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values” The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952 Save and read this checklist of books written by Nobel Prize for Literature Winners. “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life”. Thomas Kendall looks at the history of Irish literature through the story of its four Nobel Prize Winners. [4] In 1901, Prudhomme received 150,782 SEK, which is equivalent to 8,823,637.78 SEK in January 2018. The Nobel Prize in Literature was created in 1901 and is awarded annually, although sometimes postponed to the following year. The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is regarded as one of the most prestigious international literary prizes, … Sixteen women have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, the second highest number of any of the Nobel Prizes behind the Nobel Peace Prize. "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize", "Winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature | Nobel Prize in Literature", "Jean-Paul Sartre rejected Nobel prize in a letter to jury that arrived too late", "Bob Dylan removes mention of Nobel prize from website", "Nobel Prize winners: How many women have won awards? 1966: Nelly Sachs Central Press / Hulton Archive / Getty Images The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section. However it was with the advent of modernism that Irish literature attained an exalted place in the literary canon. The Nobel Prize in Literature is different than other book awards since it's based off an author's entire body of work rather than a single title. List: U.S. Nobel Prize winners in literature - StarTribune.com These Americans have been awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, the latest being Bob Dylan this year. The Nobel prize literature winners prize includes a gold medal, a diploma, money and international recognition. [10][11] There have been four instances in which the award was given to two people (1904, 1917, 1966, 1974). He left the majority of his trust wealth to fund the Nobel Prize awards. 1Rabindranath Tagore (Nobel Prize in Literature 1913) wrote in Bengali and English, Samuel Beckett (Nobel Prize in Literature 1969) wrote in French and English and Joseph Brodsky (Nobel Prize in Literature 1987) wrote poetry in Russian and prose in English. The Nobel Prize is the most important acknowledgement in the whole world annually assigned to personalities that distinguished themselves for their work and their contribution in the various fields of human knowledge, and their commitment to world peace. When Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel died in 1896, he provided for five prizes in his will, including the Nobel Prize in literature, an honor that goes to writers who have produced "the most outstanding work in an ideal direction." The books chosen for this list are noted works by Nobel winners and reflect the variety of types of writing considered for the award. The Nobel Prize committee has failed to award several key authors and playwrights, despite their influence on literature and culture. Save and read this checklist of books written by Nobel Prize for Literature Winners. But in 2013, Munro made headlines for being the first Nobel Prize in Literature winner in its more than 100-year history to work exclusively in the medium of short stories. Nobel Prizes are awarded annually to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, economics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. Louise Glück “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal”. The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017. NobelPrize.org. … Tasked with a mission to manage Alfred Nobel's fortune and has ultimate responsibility for fulfilling the intentions of Nobel's will. . [5], As of 2020, the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to 117 individuals. ", novel, short story, drama, translation, screenplay, "for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal.". The Nobel prize literature winners prize includes a gold medal, a diploma, money and international recognition. ~ Alfred Nobel For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category. [6] When he received the award in 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak was forced to publicly reject the award under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union. Credit... Katherine Wolkoff. The Nobel Prize for Literature is given for a body of work, not one specific title. There have been 113 literature prizes award thus far. The Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded, according to the will of Swedish inventor and … The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually by the Swedish Academy to authors for outstanding contributions in the field of literature. The literary canon of Poland is admirable in its achievements. Several outreach organisations and activities have been developed to inspire generations and disseminate knowledge about the Nobel Prize. These include: novels, plays, poetry, essays, speeches, short stories, historical narratives, and philosophic writings. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. The Nobel Prize in Literature is an internationally recognized award for those whose works not only challenge the field, but all of humanity. Nobel's heirs, however, fought the provisions of the will and it took five years for the first awards to be presented. The Nobel Prize for Literature has had a rocky few years. With influences from their varied history, there is an emphasis on self-expression and reflection through poetry and drama. MLA style: All Nobel Prizes in Literature. The Nobel Prize in Literature is one of 5 Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel, a famous chemist, engineer, and innovator with strong interests in literature, drama, and philanthropic and diplomatic work as well. ~ Alfred Nobel Correction: Oct. 7, 2020 An inaccurate reference to the Nobel … The 2020 Nobel Prize for Literature has been awarded to 77-year-old American poet and essayist Louise Glück. Olga Tokarczuk. Wed. 23 Dec 2020. ALBERT CAMUS for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times. The Nobel Prize in Literature is one of many Nobel Prizes given in honor of Alfred Nobel. ", "2018 Nobel Prize In Literature Is A Casualty Of Sex-Abuse Scandal", "Nobel Prize in Literature awarded to Olga Tokarczuk and Peter Handke", "George Bernard Shaw | Irish dramatist and critic", "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017 – Press Release", "Number of Nobel Laureates in Literature Sorted in Languages", Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Nobel_laureates_in_Literature&oldid=994144354, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of, "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit", "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a, "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama", "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer", "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces", "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration that characterize the creations of this world-famous author", "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life", "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories", "in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations", "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art", "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West", poetry, novel, drama, short story, music, essay, philosophy, literary criticism, translation, "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature", "for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals", "for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark", "in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament", "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama", "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation", "for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty", "for her idealistically inspired writings, which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general", "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented", "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages", "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters", "for his distinguished art of narration, which takes its highest form in, "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing", "for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art", "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy", "for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle, "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces", "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature", "for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style", "for her lyric poetry, which inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world", "for his inspired writings, which while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style", "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight", "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry", "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel", "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought", "for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind", "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life", "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values", "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in, "for his vivid epic power, which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland", "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity", "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times", novel, short story, drama, philosophy, essay, "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition", "for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times", "for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry, which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time", "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country", "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception", "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture", "for his work, which rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age", novel, short story, philosophy, drama, literary criticism, screenplay, "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his, "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people", "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength", "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America", "for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind", "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation", "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature", "for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams", "for his writing, which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature", "for an epic and psychological narrative art, which has introduced a new continent into literature", "for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom", "for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos", "for his distinctive poetry, which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions", "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work", "for a creative poetic writing, which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars", "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life", "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness", "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts", "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power", "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts", "for his novels, which with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today", "for his poetry, which endowed with freshness, and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man", "who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition", "who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence", "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity", "who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind", "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability", "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity", "who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity", "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment", "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality", "who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today", "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past", "who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden", "who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality", "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history", "for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama", "for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories", "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history", "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider", "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power", "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms", "who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures", "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny", novel, drama, poetry, short story, memoirs, autobiography, "author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization", "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed", "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat", novel, short story, essay, drama, memoirs, "because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality", "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation", "for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time", "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition", "who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world", “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life”, novel, short story, poetry, essay, screenplay, "for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.

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