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Systematic scoping reviews (also known as systematic mapping reviews) have been described as a process of mapping and describing the existing literature or evidence base on a particular topic (Arksey & O’Malley, 2005). Yet, no review reported on all of the 19 items of the RAMESES Publication Standards. However, we excluded papers commenting on methodological issues without including details of the results of the review. A realist review was conducted to research the way in which context influences how OSSs work. We (the two coauthors), working independently, read all the titles and abstracts resulting from the search process. Methods of realist review. This may be related to Pawson and colleagues’ (2004) doubt about the utility of RCT in explaining the outcomes of complex interventions, as they state, “such trials are meaningless because the RCT design is explicitly constructed to wash out the vital explanatory ingredients” (Pawson et al., 2004, p. 22). We used Unclear for issues that could not be answered based on the information available in the publication. Connell, J , Kubish, A , Schorr, L , Weiss, C. New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. ESRC Research Methods Programme. Crime, shame and reintegration. We also examined the types of studies or documents that were included in the reviews. We used Vaguely for issues that were addressed to some extent, but not fully. Coauthor Rigmor C. Berg extracted data from the reviews included in the study, using a pre-tested data extraction form (with 53 variables in total). Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Evaluation, 8(3), 340-358. An illustrative example of a vague specification of eligibility criteria is quoted below: Studies were included if they were relevant to the synthesis question (i.e., examined some part of the relationship between [intervention] and [outcome]) and contributed to the refinement of a program theory identified during the first stage. The description of the analysis and synthesis approaches was rather weak in most of the reviews included in our study. Instead, the reviews appeared to rely largely on a qualitative assessment of the likelihood of certain outcomes. The Method section of the RAMESES Publication Standards includes seven items (Items 5-11). The review was conducted in two phases: theory building and theory refinement. The 57 publications included in the review comprised 33 journal articles, 12 theses or dissertations, four reports, four articles, three conference abstracts, and one book chapter. (2009, October). Sharing links are not available for this article. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 23(4), 471-486, A theory led narrative review of one-to-one health interventions: The influence of attachment style and client-provider relationship on client adherence, Health Education Research, 29(5), 740-754, Psychiatric advance directives as a complex and multistage intervention: A realist systematic review, Health and Social Care in the Community, 21(1), 1-14, Community-based services for homeless adults experiencing concurrent mental health and substance use disorders: A realist approach to synthesizing evidence, Implementing successful intimate partner violence screening programs in health care settings: Evidence generated from a realist-informed systematic review, Social Science and Medicine, 72(6), 855-866, Multimedia psychoeducational interventions to support patient self-care in degenerative conditions: A realist review, Palliative Support Care, 13(5), 1473-1486, How outcomes are achieved through patient portals: A realist review, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 21(4), 751-757, Factors influencing intercultural doctor-patient communication: A realist review, Patient Education and Counseling, 98(4), 420-445, Mentoring relationships: An explanatory review [Working Paper 21], ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice, Leeds, UK, Legislating for health: Locating the evidence, Journal of Public Health Policy, 31(2), 164-177, Known knowns, known unknowns, unknown unknowns: The predicament of evidence-based policy, American Journal of Evaluation, 32(4), 518-546, Social Policy and While only 39 per cent discussed the strengths of the review, 67 per cent discussed the limitations. In accordance with our aim, we examined the description of methods and processes in the reviews, with respect to quality assurance and transparency. Buscemi, N., Hartling, L., Vandermeer, B., Tjosvold, L., & Klassen, T. P. (2005). The Journal of Urology, 186(1), 266-272. operating at different levels, the artefacts they use and the material environments in which they work [ 17 ]. PLoS Med, 6(7), e1000097. studies. Critical Realism (CR) is a branch of philosophy that distinguishes between the 'real' world and the 'observable' world. These results indicate a relatively low degree of similarity among those reviews meeting our broad criteria for realist review, and in particular great variability in reporting of methods in realist reviews. It has become a common practice within systematic reviews that document selection, appraisal, and data extraction are performed by two independent reviewers to minimize bias and errors (Littell, 2013). Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Journal of Research Practice, 12(1), Article R1. We found that the initial process of exploratory scoping of the literature was described in only 58 per cent of the reviews. Changes: Any changes made to the review process that was initially planned should be briefly described and justified, 6. 1. [b] One could not be assessed with regard to this item because there was no abstract nor executive summary International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19-32. Reflecting a similar pattern, less than half of the reviews included in our study reported on how judgments were made about including data and which data were extracted. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. The aim of this realist systematic review [1,2,3] is to identify and synthesise studies that explore oral health interventions for people living with mental disorders.The terms mental disorder and mental illness are often used interchangeably. Data extraction: Describe and explain which data or information were extracted from the included documents and justify this selection [d], 11. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 59, 697-703. It included an extensive search of government and non-government (NGO) publications. One review did not state how many documents were included. The IACR journal is the Journal of Critical Realism (JCR). Additionally, we found that 30 per cent (n=16) of the reviews made no reference to appraisal, 17 per cent (n=9) used one or more checklist, 24 per cent (n=13) assessed the documents’ relevance to theory (and rigor), and one review explained, “no formal quality scoring was employed.” Among the remaining 15 reviews, there was a mix of self-created quality assessment tools and other vaguely described assessments, including “descriptive quality assessment was used,” “the usual criteria for high quality evidence was used,” and “we based our appraisal on whether the studies identified mechanisms.” We found only a few reviews that explained how the outcome of the appraisal was taken into account in the synthesis. A systematic review, or systematic literature review, is a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize findings qualitatively or quantitatively. 33, Issue. Methods This is a realist review with iterative searches. Wong, G., Greenhalgh, T., Westhorp, G., Buckingham, J., & Pawson, R. (2013). Medical informatics and the Internet in Medicine, 32(1), 5-10, Healthcare improvement and rapid PDSA cycles of change: A realist synthesis of the literature, Does the food stamp program cause obesity? The reviews were published in 40 different journals, with most journals publishing only one realist review each (only two journals had two realist reviews each). Explain why the review is needed and what it is likely to contribute to existing understanding of the topic area, 4. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 14, 119. It was also challenging to designate some of the data points. Login failed. The review was conducted in two phases: theory building and theory refinement. . Pawson, R. A Measure for Measures: A Manifesto for Empirical Sociology. We aimed for an acceptable degree of methodological congruence between the realist review approach and what had been conducted by the review authors. Evidence-based policy: A realist perspective. Contain brief details of: background, review question/objectives, search strategy, methods of selection, appraisal, analysis, and synthesis of sources, main results, implications for practice, 3. joint health and safety committees), health research, and advance directives (i.e., a living will that gives durable power of attorney to a surrogate decision-maker). A systematic review [BEME guide no. Realist Review: Current Practice and Future Prospects, Rigmor C. Berg However, there was a divergence among reviews with respect to other search strategies, reporting of the actual search, and sophistication in database searching. REALIST APPROACH. Transparency Measures, Abstract identified the study as a realist review or realist synthesis, 2 reviews had no abstract or executive summary, Process of selecting documents was done by two or more persons independently, 14 (28%) reviews partially Overall, there was little uniformity and transparency regarding many methodological issues. BMC Medicine, 11(21), 1-14. For example, three quarters (74 per cent) of the 54 reviews identified the document as a realist review or realist synthesis in the title. We found that realist review is still in development. Oakley, A., Gough, D., Oliver, S., & James, T. (2005). Conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis in line with a realist review will allow us to draw a robust conclusion on the effects and the way in which the interventions work. Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., & O’Brien, K. K. (2010). We are not arguing that realist reviews should adopt the processes that are standard for systematic reviews. Still, we present the list here for two reasons: We believe it is important to share this for the sake of transparency of the review process; besides, this may be a useful resource for readers interested in the realist review approach. A Cited Reference Search was also conducted with the Social Science Citation Index through the Web of Science database on key realist review methodological texts (Pawson, 2002, 2006; Pawson et al., 2004, 2005; Wong et al., 2012). Reporting of Quality Assurance and Transparency Measures in the 54 Realist Reviews, Quality Assurance and Methodological concerns and quality appraisal of contemporary systematic reviews and meta-analyses in pediatric urology. Unleashing their potential: A critical realist scoping review of the influence of dogs on physical activity for dog-owners and non-owners. Cochrane update: ‘Scoping the scope’ of a Cochrane review. It is possible that more development or clarification of the standards is needed. Qualitative Research, 7, 375-422. Moreover, different researchers may interpret what counts as a realist review slightly differently. We adhered to the framework proposed by Arksey and O’Malley (2005) for conducting a systematic scoping review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(12, Part 2), 1056-1065. The high number of documents suggests that realist reviews may assume a broader scope than systematic reviews. Poster presentation at Cochrane Colloquium, Singapore. Books, book chapters, unpublished reports, brief reports, and preliminary reports were all considered for inclusion on the same basis as journal articles. Five reviews described themselves as a systematic review in their title (although three of these did not follow the basic procedures required for systematic reviews). There was a consistent lack of measures of strengths of effects across the studies. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement., Julie Nanavati Realist review (also known as realist synthesis) is particularly helpful for this task. Pages: 309-313. We also followed Levac and colleagues’ recent recommendations on clarifying and enhancing each stage of the review (Levac, Colquhoun, & O’Brien, 2010). Related to this, 10 reviews had no information about the years searched, while 8 had no limits for the year of publication (9 per cent), and the remaining 28 reviews searched literature published after a specified year. Realist reviews follow most of the same standard steps as systematic reviews (Pawson et al., 2004): Pawson and colleagues (2004) stipulate that the process should be equally rigorous and transparent (i.e., auditable), where every judgment is written down. Factors influencing intercultural doctor-patient communication: A realist review. Funding: (b) Provide details of the role played by the funder, 19. Delegating home visits in general practice: a realist review on the impact on GP workload and patient care Ruth Abrams , et al British Journal of General Practice 1 June 2020; 70 (695): e412-e420. Specifically, one stated, the “re-review offers a fuller understanding of the impacts of these interventions and how they are produced . 4 reviews were re-reviews [a], Gave the number of documents screened, assessed for eligibility, and included, Appraisal of evidence was done by two or more persons independently, 1 used appraisal from systematic review Protocol—realist and meta-narrative evidence synthesis: Evolving standards (RAMESES). The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 111(6), 476-484. The results of the review combine theoretical understanding and empirical evidence, and focus on explaining the relationship between the context in which the intervention is applied, the mechanisms by which it works and the outcomes which are produced. Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Consistent with realist review quality standards, articles retrieved from electronic databases were systematically screened and analysed to elicit explanations of … This paper offers a model of research synthesis which is designed to work with complex social interventions or programmes, and which is based on the emerging ‘realist’ approach to evaluation. But more importantly, it asserts that the things we are studying in social research have some prior existence and would continue to exist even if our knowledge of them was limited. Sackett, D. L., Richardson, W. S., Rosenberg, W., & Haynes, R. B. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. The realist understanding of how programmes work Realist philosophy (Pawson and Tilley use the term ‘scientific realism’) considers that an intervention works (or not) because actors make particular decisions in response to the intervention (or not). A realist review is a novel method that uses a qualitative method of synthesising research, which has an explanatory rather than judgmental focus. The first four items of the RAMESES Publication Standards deal with the information expected for the title, abstract, and introduction of a realist review (Items 1-4). This section should include information on the constructs analyzed and describe the analytic process, 11. 21. One review specified that studies that addressed outcome had to be randomized controlled trials. Administration, 47(4), 434-450, The computerized medical record as a tool for clinical governance in Australian primary care, Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 2(2), e26, Intermediate care: A realist review and conceptual framework [Final report], Can clinical governance deliver quality improvement in Australian general practice and primary care? Retrieved from Successfully implementing a national electronic health record: a rapid... Searching for new community engagement approaches in the Netherlands: ... Greenwood, J. Realism, Identity and Emotion. A realist review of the academic and grey literature was conducted in 2014. Yet, half of the reviews in our study lacked information about the documents used. . The incompleteness arose from the absence of information concerning study design, setting, intervention, and/or participants. Department of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds, Leeds UK. Realist review is a specific method within the realist evaluation tradition. Quality collaboratives: lessons from research, Evaluation of quality improvement programmes, Systematically reviewing qualitative and quantitative evidence to inform management and policy making in the health field, Meta-narrative mapping: a new approach to the synthesis of complex evidence. [d] We did not assess rationale/justification In phase 3, we tested our refined IPT from our realist review findings through a realist evaluation of Lean sustainability in pediatric health care in … With regard to the Results section of the RAMESES Publication Standards (Items 12-14), about half of the reviews provided information about the documents included in the review, either fully (39 per cent) or incompletely (11 per cent). Objectives and focus of review: a) State the objective(s) of the review and/or the review question(s), 4. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Our understanding of realist review and our inclusion criteria were based on Pawson and colleagues’ description of realist review (Pawson, 2006; Pawson et al., 2004, 2005). It describes five key ideas which frame realism and their implications for impact evaluation. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? [f] We did not assess reasons for exclusion at each stage or source of origin The science and practice of research synthesis. Inclusion criteria for studies that addressed outcomes were: studies had to be controlled studies (n=5), evaluation studies (n=3), any type of quantitative studies, quantitative and qualitative studies that evaluated any of the outcomes, or studies that report on one or more of the outcomes of interest. Most of the 54 reviews were published in peer-reviewed journals (n=42). To be included in our systematic scoping review, a review had to meet all the following criteria: (a) Applies a method that is consistent with the underlying principles of a realist review, specifically focusing on how and why an intervention worked, or did not work, in particular contexts (Pawson, 2002, 2006; Pawson et al., 2004, 2005; Wong et al., 2012), (b) Refers to at least one of the five main publications describing realist review (i.e., those listed above, under item [a]), (c) Has been published between 2004 (the date of publication of Pawson and colleagues’ key text on realist review [Pawson et al., 2004]) and the date of our search, (d) Contains the description and the results of a completed review. Index Terms: systematic review; systematic scoping review; mapping review; social intervention; realist review; realist synthesis; RAMESES publication standards, Suggested Citation: Berg, R. C., & Nanavati, J. We found that there is a lack of clarity both surrounding the process of building up and testing of theories and the way in which the reviewers assess the effect of interventions. Szifris et al./Journal of Prison Education and Reentry 5(1) 43 both for prison education and future research. 16], Interprofessional teamwork across stroke care pathways: Outcomes and patient and career experience [Final report], NIHR Service Delivery and Organisation Programme, Southampton, UK, Evidence of communication, influence and behavioural norms in interprofessional teams: A realist synthesis, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(2), 100-105, Using realist synthesis to understand the mechanisms of interprofessional teamwork in health and social care, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(6), 501-506, Management of long term sickness absence: A systematic realist review, Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 22(3), 322-332, Effectiveness and uptake of screening programmes for coronary heart disease and diabetes: A realist review of design components used in interventions, Does moving from a high-poverty to lower-poverty neighborhood improve mental health? The time-frame to conduct this review was short; it was the preliminary stage of a realist evaluation which was also time-limited. A realist review was conducted to research the way in which context influences how OSSs work. Although the number of publications reporting a realist review appears to be increasing rapidly, there is a lack of clarity about its methods and applications. Realistic evaluation. The final strategy used for MEDLINE was: (realist systematic review* or realist review* or realist synthes*) AND (“2004/01/01”[PDAT]: “2014/12/31”[PDAT]). Traditional methods of review focus on measuring and reporting on programme effectiveness, often find that the evidence is mixed or conflicting, and provide little or no clue as to why the intervention worked or did not work when applied in different contexts or circumstances, deployed by different stakeholders, or used for different purposes. Deriving from Aristotle’s tutelage at the feet of the great idealist Plato, realism has an important influence on education. Making a reality of evidence-based practice: some lessons from the diffusion of innovations, Increasing research impact through partnerships: evidence from outside health care, Using ‘linkage and exchange’ to move research into policy at a Canadian foundation, Action and enlightenment functions of research, Examining the role of health services research in public policymaking, Evidence-based health policy: context and utilisation, How great expectations in Westminster may be dashed locally: the local implementation of national policy on health inequalities, Health Services Management Centre, University of Birmingham. In one of the early publications describing realist review, Pawson and colleagues characterize it in these words: Realist synthesis is an approach to reviewing research evidence on complex social interventions, which provides an explanatory analysis of how and why they work (or don’t work) in particular contexts or settings. 1 possibly, The 24 unclear reviews did not state whether any form was used, Data extraction was done by two or more persons independently, 2 checked by 2nd person Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice, 3(4), 539-551. Pawson, R. Does Megan's Law Work. Armstrong, R., Hall, B. J., Doyle, J., & Waters, E. (2011). To start providing such information, this rapid realist review (RRR) sets out eight guiding principles for ‘meaningful’ participation. Bate, SP , Robert, G. Report on the ‘Breakthrough’ Collaborative Approach to Quality and Service Improvement in Four Regions of the NHS. In our study, a high proportion of reviewers discussed the limitations of their review rather than the strengths, oftentimes highlighting the demanding methodological process. Opposed to the conventional systematic review, in the realist review, studies are synthesized in an explanatory way rather than final judgment [27, 33]. Strengths, limitations, and future research directions: a) Discuss the strengths of the review, 16. The limitations included, in particular: (a) the possibility of selection and publication bias, (b) the studies included in the review rarely detailed the mechanisms by which an intervention was expected to work, and (c) the diversity of contexts covered in the studies hampered generalization. Whereas in realist review the primary data comes from documents (e.g. The IACR journal is the Journal of Critical Realism (JCR). As an additional example, many reviews included vague inclusion questions such as: Does the article/document focus on [topic]? Some authors referred to an interface (e.g., OVID, EBSCO), rather than a particular database, which made it difficult to evaluate in which database they had searched. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. We conducted a comprehensive and systematic search up to January 2015 in 11 international databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Library (CDSR, DARE), EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstract, Sociological Abstracts, and Web of Science. Volume 56, Issue 5, November 2018, Pages 795-807.e18. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. We identified a growing body of literature using the realist review approach. The research team discussed all the extracted data to find overarching categories in the context-mechanism-outcome model. Key realist review texts (Pawson, 2006; Pawson et al., 2004, 2005; Wong et al., 2013) explain that appraisal of the data should be made on relevance (whether it can contribute to theory building and/or testing) and rigor (whether it is credible and trustworthy), which was the case for only a quarter of the reviews included in our study. review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances, Policy guidance on threats to legislative interventions in public health: A realist synthesis, The internet in medical education: A worked example of a realist review [Chapter], Synthesising Qualitative Research: Choosing the Right Approach (Editors: Hannes & Lockwood), Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, Effectiveness of joint health and safety committees: A realist review, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56(4), 424-438, How design of places promotes or inhibits mobility of older adults: Realist synthesis of 20 years of research, Journal of Aging and Health, 26(8), 1340-1372, Appendix B: Review teams often conduct a single “big bang” multipurpose search to fulfill multiple functions within the review. Evaluating meta-analyses in the general surgical literature: A critical appraisal. Single data extraction generated more errors than double data extraction in systematic reviews. 1 partially In this review, we use the term mental disorder consistent with the language of the World Health Organization (WHO) []. As such, a systematic realist literature review facilitates an analysis that is more explanatory in nature, discovers crosscut- London, UK: Social Care Institute for Excellence. A systematic scoping review is a process of mapping the existing evidence base on a particular topic. Paternotte, E., Van Dulmen, S., Van Der Lee, N., Scherpbier, A. J. J. Specific methodological guidance may need to be developed if realist reviews are to have a more uniform and transparent approach. A systematic review of the evidence, The Medical Journal of Australia, 193(10), 602-607, Realist review to understand the efficacy of culturally appropriate diabetes education programmes, Realist synthesis: Illustrating the method for implementation research, Evidence of collaboration, pooling of resources, learning and role blurring in interprofessional healthcare teams: A realist synthesis, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(1), 20-25, Realist review to inform development of the electronic advance care plan for the personally controlled electronic health record in Australia, Telemedicine Journal and E-Health, 20(11), 1042-1048, Interventions to reduce injuries when transferring patients: A critical appraisal of reviews and a realist synthesis, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(10), 1381-1394. Journal of Further and Higher Education, v40 n3 p316-330 2016. We found that no review reported on all of the 19 items of the RAMESES Publication Standards, including the reviews that claimed to report in accordance with the standards. Thus it is disquieting that only about one in five of the reviews in our study had selection, appraisal, or data extraction done independently by two persons. Our systematic scoping review comes with limitations. Realist review - a new method of systematic review designed for complex policy interventions Ray Pawson, Ph.D , Trisha Greenhalgh, M.D , Gill Harvey, Ph.D , and Kieran Walshe, Ph.D Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 2016 10 : 1_suppl , 21-34 In a realist review, stakeholder involvement from very early stages of the review process is a requirement, which is intended to ensure practical relevance of the end product. Evidence & Policy, 1(1), 5-31.

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