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The mechanisms share three critical features: they estimate and capture full cost values for a range of mountain resources; they identify clear ownership, rights and responsibilities; and they introduce economic incentives so that solutions are introduced and implemented by stakeholders and are sustainable over the long term. Mountains are landforms which rise for over 600 meters than the surrounding land area. In an effort to examine the complex issue of flow and pricing of resources and services to and from mountain areas, The Mountain Institute, at the request of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) organized an electronic conference, entitled Investing in Mountains, to gather examples of innovative financing mechanisms used to reverse the downward flow of benefits. Chapter 13 in action 1992-97 - a task manager's report. Later theorists have challenged this approach, emphasizing a "bottom-up" development paradigm, in which countries become self-sufficient through local efforts, and urban industry is not necessary. As a result, natural assets are flowing downhill at unsustainable rates and mountain communities are becoming increasingly marginalized. Developing countries may not be able to afford electric or semi-electric cars, but their people can conserve both money and oxygen by carpooling, riding bikes and reusing grocery bags. However, downstream beneficiaries have contributed little to reinvestment in their management or renewal, or compensation to the traditional stewards of these resources. Innovative mechanisms are needed to protect mountain ecosystems, to provide incentives for communities to continue in their stewardship roles and, ultimately, to maintain the very resources on which national and global populations depend. Mountain wood provides timber for local use and export. Energy resources for remote highland areas. 1992. You and your friends could look into volunteering at local organizations, or give blood if you're old enough. These terms have been the subject of criticism, but they remain commonly used in many circles, including among international investors and international organizations. Develop resonsible … FAO, as Task Manager for Chapter 13, has a vital role in catalysing and linking these various initiatives, in collaboration with regional and global structures such as CIP, ICIMOD and the Mountain Forum. Governments in emerging economies have, over the decades, tried many different policy agendas to stimulate development, accelerate growth, alleviate poverty, and achieve any number of other goals to mixed success. 1997. Some of the goods and services provided by mountain environments, such as timber, hydropower and minerals, have a measurable economic value. However, as the case studies repeatedly illustrate, the victims of unsustainable mountain development are not limited to the marginalized mountain communities. How do you develop strategies? 1995. Investing in mountains: innovative mechanisms and promising examples for financing conservation and Sustainable development. IGBP Report No. Countries deemed more developed than LDCs are called developed countries, while those less developed are known as less economically developed countries (LEDCs) or frontier markets. A visitor reads in a former factory house in Xixi Community of Huoshan County, east China's Anhui Province, April 18, 2019. A performance management system helps you develop a method for accurate and effective performance reviews that can help assess where performance stands, as well as provide a roadmap to where you want to go. They develop the available natural elements and transform them into ‘resources’ for use. An environmental valuation study conducted by the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project (SNEP) in northern California, United States demonstrates that it is possible to measure and place economic value on mountain resource flows which traditionally have not been assessed. Small towns and rural communities throughout the United States are looking for ways to strengthen their economies, provide better quality of life, and build on local assets. With the advent of new technologies, population increase and development pressures, the magnitude of these resource outflows has increased dramatically. These factors should be incorporated into the design of mechanisms to ensure sustainable resource use in mountain areas. Tourism and amenity migration. the need for national policy development and implementation to ensure sustainable patterns of consumption and production in tourism (paragraph 68). Oceans and seasCross-sectoral theme. Each of the intergovernmental and NGO consultations presented a different set of recommendations and priorities, and others were included in the state-of-knowledge review Mountains of the world: a global priority which was prepared for UNGASS (Messerli and Ives, 1997). 4th ed. Rostow's theory can be classified as "top-down," or one that emphasizes a trickle-down modernization effect from urban industry and western influence to develop a country as a whole. In some cases, more effective resource management can be achieved through privatization or secure tenurial rights. Moreover, traditional downstream beneficiaries are also adversely affected, and no longer receive the benefits of indirect environmental services they previously enjoyed. The conference and the report highlight a number of enabling conditions and characteristics relating to the social and economic policy which has contributed to the successful implementation of mechanisms. Until now, the mountain agenda has largely been set by a relatively small number of active regional and national governments (and their agencies), international organizations, scientists and NGOs at various levels. In part, this is because many of the associated benefits are non-market resources which economists consider as "public goods". This study concluded that water resources are by far the most valuable economic resource, despite the popular perception that timber and grazing are the two most highly valued resources within the Sierra Nevada ecosystem. Stockholm, IGBP Secretariat. E-mail address: [email protected]. Atmosphere, energyCross-sectoral theme. Therefore, canals, tube wells should be constructed to provide better irrigation facilities for the security of crops. Mountain Agenda. It is not only the "development" and "conservation" NGOs that have interests in sustainable mountain development; increasingly, members of NGOs that are recreation-and tourism-based are recognizing the need to understand their impacts on mountain communities and environments. Mountainous regions are called montane. Brugger, G. Furrer, B. Messerli & P. Messerli, eds. The average farm receives about US$75 000 for improvements such as cement manure pipes, fencing to improve cattle feeding, and riverside tree planting. We'll walk through the process of developing strategies with this group so as to better explain the who, what, and why of strategies. E-mail address: [email protected], Morrow, C. 1996. With this incentive-based mechanism in place, actual value has been attached to watersheds, not only to the water resources, and unique partnerships have been formed. Mountains can be very difficult to cross. source of funding, Warm Springs Indian Reservation Trust, Oregon, United States, Wolf Compensation Fund, Rocky Mountains, United States, Use of private sector funds for conservation, Shore Trust Bank, Washington, United States, Recreational Equipment, Inc., United States, A fuller understanding of land-use and ownership patterns is fundamental for mountain conservation and development. ILRI. Background paper in support of the global NGO Consultation on the Mountain Agenda. TABLE 1. Another major difficulty in valuation is that mountain resources are themselves inherently complex and interrelated so that they constitute a joint product rather than an single one. However, with this "ownership" should come a set of responsibilities to the interconnected resources, even those that have not been clearly defined. Traditional economic tools are often inadequate in measuring these non-market goods. It is interesting to note, as an aside, that in many cases the interests of the non-human stakeholders in mountain ecosystems are represented by members of NGOs or scientific projects, whose role is to provide objective assessment of environmental development. Some geological processes like folding, volcanic activity, faulting, metamorphism, etc., can lead to the formation of mountains. The most powerful thing you can … 1996. Prepare. In economic terms, public goods are defined as those from which other users cannot be excluded and whose consumption by one individual or group does not diminish the amount available for others (Tietenberg, 1996). The electronic conference, held in 1996, was hosted by the Mountain Forum, a global electronic network of individuals and organizations involved in mountain conservation and development. Mountains of the world: a global priority, p. 249-280. & Williams, P.W. Forestry is a key economic activity with the planting and harvesting of trees e.g. The term has been used frequently in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the concept has existed in the West for far longer. Consumption and production patternsEconomic sector/major group. Fisher, J.F. However, regional initiatives are also important, recognizing the great diversity of mountain environments around the world. However, if sustainable quantity and quality are to be assured, downstream users must begin to assume a larger share of the true costs of water by paying for the maintenance of watersheds. For example, forested watersheds not only provide clean water and forest products, but they also provide habitat for wildlife and erosion control, recreational opportunities, clean air and, in many places, sacred significance for surrounding populations. Mountain Research and Development, 10: 101-127. Investing in mountains: innovative mechanisms and promising examples for financing conservation and sustainable development. This approach is interventionist and protectionist, and guided policy making in many African and Latin American Policies to promote developmentIn trying to develop, countries can either look inwards or outwards.Inward and outward looking policiesInward lookingInward looking strategies were typical of the general approach to development which dominated thinking after the Second World War. A business plan is a tool that provides communication, management and planning information to investors, employees, local communities and business owners (see reference 1). A more detailed description of each of these mechanisms and case studies is provided in the conference report edited by Lynelle Preston (1997), Investing in mountains: innovative mechanisms and promising examples for financing conservation and sustainable development. Thus, the stakeholders can better comprehend and accept their rights and responsibilities as, for example, the owner of a timber licence appreciates the economic value of the right to resource extraction conveyed by the licence. Denniston, D. 1996. However, exploitation of the conditions that produce the goods can greatly diminish its availability to all. Lynelle Preston is a programme officer at the Asian Regional Office of The Mountain Institute in Kathmandu, Nepal. Some of the goods and services provided by mountain environments, e.g. 1990. The state of the world's mountains: a global report. This may lead to a conclusion that conservation is the most efficient resource "use"; or alternatively, it may reveal the benefits of balancing resource extraction with the maintenance of existing environmental assets. Many studies attribute South Korea’s structural transformation to policy reforms aimed at opening the country to foreign markets. 1. Communication and Outreach: Develop a strong communication strategy so that your project results can be shared with a large audience. Beckhardt, L. 1996. Information for decision-making and participation in international cooperation for an enabling environmentEconomic sector/major group. The new economy demands a shift to an entrepreneurial mindset that goes beyond the scope of work in your job description. Chapter 13 has been the catalyst to much debate, and many governments and organizations have contributed significant financial and other resources to activities contributing to its implementation. Oil producers will earn more revenue for their product. An appeal for the mountains. Financial resources, trade and investment, economic growthEconomic sector/major group. & Bugmann, H., eds. New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. 1997. The boundary can shift and the island will be pulled under (sub ducted). The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation.It started to emerge on an industrial scale in the 19th century as the extraction and processing of raw materials (such as in mining, steam power, and machinery) developed much further than it had in preindustrial areas. The incentives for individuals to act collectively rather than independently encourage stakeholders to return to the table whenever necessary to renegotiate fragile and tenuous partnerships and alliances. These proposed options illustrate that communities in both upstream and downstream areas increasingly recognize the unintended negative consequences from unsustainable mountain resource use, and that they are creating and implementing innovative responses aimed to reverse and mitigate adverse effects. Plateau mountains, such as the Catskills, are formed from the erosion of … However, not all resources can be privatized and individual ownership can lead to destructive and unsustainable uses. Final Report to Congress, Vol. Energy, transport. Well documented project results can help you in getting support from a range of stakeholders and donors. New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. Good drainage is important, as well as contour and grading. 18th Apr, 2019. New York City Watershed Agricultural Program, United States. Often the incentive structures are maintained by social inducements and "soft sanctions" that depend on peer pressure for compliance. FAO Forestry Paper No. resource, Community forest user groups in Makalu-Barun Conservation Area, Nepal, Legal rights to develop a piece of property which can be traded on the 1996. SNEP. 43. But mountains can also form in other ways. in Sikkim, India, Training and support for developing new small businesses, Entrepreneurial systems of associations with roots in the local region New York City Watershed Program. Five Easy Steps to Develop a Country . Further progress in ensuring that sustainable mountain development is not only a policy imperative but also a concept of practical relevance to all who depend on the mountains will require the mobilization and long-term commitment of stakeholders in all sectors worldwide. 1998. Bern, Paul Haupt. This may be organized in conjunction with an International Year of Mountains, which has been proposed by the Government of Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, ownership of one resource essentially establishes ownership of all rights, even those that were not factored into the original grant of the resource right. 1995. & Messerli, B. A Rai woman carrying bamboo collected in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area, Nepal, Increased ownership, rights and responsibility for mountain resources. Consequently, mountain communities, as suppliers, do not derive appropriate benefits. Examples of continental collision on Earth are the Himalayan Mountains and the alps. These are the different types of resources based on various factors: Furthermore, while secure property rights may provide incentives for sustainable management, there may be no incentives to prevent downstream effects such as water polluted by runoff. By promoting the use of international standards at home, countries also help their companies to integrate into global value chains. Then it curves north- and eastward through northern Italy, Switzerland Liechtenstein, southern Germany, Austria and Slovenia. Undocumented immigrants pay an average of $11.64 billion in state and local taxes a year. Global distribution of species diversity on vascular plants: towards a world map of phytodiversity. 1996. Promote economic growth through innovation. For more than one billion people, mountains are sacred places. Developing countries are countries with economies that have a low gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rely heavily on agriculture as the primary industry. Paris, UNESCO and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. The analysis of contributions to the electronic conference, Investing in Mountains, has shown that effective and lasting mechanisms are being devised to maintain environmental services and sustainable resource flows from mountains to the areas below. Continental Collision- occurs when there is an island near a convergent boundary. Ives, eds. It can add value, but also be costly when you develop the land. European Intergovernmental Consultation on Sustainable Mountain Development. During recent years, political and institutional momentum has been building up to develop policies and mechanisms to mobilize more financial assistance for the conservation and sustainable development of the world's mountainous regions. The principal factor affecting the development of an economy is the natural resources or land. Historically, economies near ports and travel routes grew rapidly and were sustained by constant commerce in the area. Mountains of the world: a global priority. In either case, once the full resource value is established, mechanisms can often be employed to acquire this value and redirect it from downstream users to mountain communities. Their isolation allows them little access to information or to the decision-making powers of their national governments; typically, participation in external markets is based on unequal and unfavourable terms of trade (Byers, 1995). In B. Messerli & J.D. These revenues contribute to services that benefit all Canadians. At an interpersonal level, you can show kindness to those around you. There is, however, still strong disagreement on how governments should intervene. The fact of the matter remains: undeveloped real estate has the ability to deliver the same consistent cash flow as any other type of investment opportunity.. Fortunately for investors, raw land is … Schweizer, P. & Preiser, K. 1997. According to the UNGASS final document, all countries are expected to have prepared national strategies for sustainable development by 2002, involving all interested parties and integrating economic, social and environmental objectives. Also known as rifting, this process occurs when rocks on one side of … Therefore, unsustainable practices upstream necessarily affect those living below. Networks such as the Mountain Forum will have a clear role to play in such initiatives. When it comes to regions of the world, developing countries have not quite reached economic maturity, although there's a wide array of different definitions. The capital of tourism in danger. limber (Finland)... ... and tourism (Nepal), have measurable economic value, INVESTING IN MOUNTAINS: INNOVATIVE ECONOMIC SOLUTIONS. 1997. E-mail address: [email protected], Jodha, N.S. Mountains of the world: water towers for the twenty-first century. Historically this value represented only the extraction costs and profits and did not include the environmental benefits and values. To create a low inflationary framework, it requires: 1. Develop your plan! The third key element of successful mechanisms to protect mountain environments is the design of incentive structures that foster stakeholder-driven processes. 112. As is recognized in Agenda 21 as a whole, the private sector also has a major role to play, yet it has not been particularly well integrated in the implementation of Chapter 13. Workers will benefit during the $12.6* billion construction project. Even more important, without adequate empowerment and control, they may be unable to prevent overexploitation by others. funding, Mgahinga and Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust, Uganda, Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Bhutan, Hard-currency debt of one country exchanged for conservation, or preservation,

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